The Indian print media consists of 41 centenarians. The Gujarati daily Bombay Samachar, published from Mumbai, is the oldest existing newspaper. It was established in 1822. Hindi dailies dominate in terms of numbers. The first newspaper to be published in India was Bengal Gazette (also called Hickey’s Gazette). It was first published in 1780 from Calcutta in English. Dig Darshan (Bengali) was the first language paper, also from Calcutta (1818).
Newspapers are published from all the States and Union Territories except from Arunachal Pradesh and Lakshadweep. Newspapers are brought out in 92 languages.
TV was introduced in India in September 1959 with the establishment of a centre at Delhi as a pilot project. Over the years it acquired its Indian name Doordarshan and expanded its reach and area of activities in the spheres of information, education and entertainment.
On 15 August 1984, a daily national programme of 90 minutes for a simultaneous telecast throughout the country was introduced. The INSAT-IB satellite could make this possible.
The Commercial service of Doordarshan was started in January 1986. The service has now been extended to almost all the Kendras.
Today, there are a host of private channels. Prominent among them are: Star TV, Zee TV, &TV, Sony TV, NDTV, IBN, National Geographic, Discovery Channel, Aaj Tak, Sun TV, ESPN, HBO, AXN and Cartoon Network.
Broadcasting in India started in 1927 with two privately owned transmitters in Bombay and Calcutta. The government took them over in 1930 to establish the Indian Broadcasting Service. The name was changed to All India Radio in 1936 and since 1957 it is known as Akashvani.
A national radio channel commenced broadcasting programmes on 18 May 1988. The transmission originating from Delhi is being beamed all over the country through a 1000 KW transmitter at Nagpur.
In 1983 the government allowed private FM operators to “buy” blocks on All India Radio, prepare programming content, book advertisements and broadcast the whole lot. Times FM in Delhi and Radio Mid-Day in Mumbai took the initiative and revolutionised Radio broadcasting.
In 1998 the government, through its regulatory authority Prasar Bharti, decided not to renew contracts of private FM operators.
On 6 July 1999 the government announced that 150 new FM channels would be licensed in 40 cities. And, in 2000, the government auctioned licences for private FM channels and in 2001 the following radio stations were launched:
- Radio Mirchi in Ahmedabad, Indore and Pune.
- Radio City in Lucknow and Bangalore.
- AIR FM2 in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Delhi.
Prasar Bharati: The government of India had exclusive rights on broadcasting for 65 years. On 29 February 1995, a Supreme Court judgement paved the way for the establishment of private broadcasting in India. On July 27, 1997 the Prasar Bharati Act was notified. AIR and Doordarshan were given autonomy on 15 September 1997. The Cable Television Networks (Regulations) Act, 1995 came into effect from 25 March 1995.
NEWSPAPERS AND NEWS AGENCIES
Principal Indian Daily Newspapers
The Hindu (English), The Statesman (English), The Amrita Bazar Patrika (English), The Hindustan Times (English), The Tribune, (English, Hindi & Punjabi), The Times of India (English), The Assam Tribune (English), The Indian Express (English), The Indian Nation (English), The Hitavada (English), The Pioneer (English), The National Herald (English), Deccan Herald (English), The Telegraph (English), Daily News & Analysis (DNA) (English), The Economic Times (Business-English), Mint (Business-English), Business Standard (Business-English) Amar Ujala (Hindi), Dainik Bhaskar (Hindi), Dainik Jagran (Hindi), Nav Bharat Times (Hindi), Gujarat Samachar (Gujarati), Rajasthan Patrika (Hindi), Malayalam Manorma (Malayalam), Mathrubhumi (Malayalam), Dinakaran (Tamil), Daily Thanti (Tamil), Loksatta (Marathi), Lokmat (Marathi), Eenadu (Telugu), Andhra Bhoomi (Telugu), Punjab Kesari (Hindi & Punjabi), Daily Ajit (Punjabi), Ananda Bazar Patrika (Bengali)
Indian News Agencies
There are four News Agencies in India viz., Press Trust of India (PTI), United News of India (UNI), Hindustan Samachar and Samachar Bharati.
Well-known Foreign Newspapers
|Al Ahram||…||Cairo (Egypt)|
|Daily News||…||New York (USA)|
|Guardian (Weekly)||…||London (UK.|
|New York Times||…||New York (USA)|
|People’s Daily||…||Beijing (China)|
|The Times||…||London (UK)|
Foreign News Agencies
(1) Reuters of the United Kingdom. (2) Agence France Presse (AFP) of France. (3) Associated Press. (4) United Press of America. (5) International News Service of the United States (6) Interfax of Russia. (7) Globe (near and Far East) News Agency. (8) Arab News Agency. (9) Xinhua (China). (10) NAM News Agency. (11) IRNA (Iran).
Press Council of India
It owes its origin to the recommendations of the first Press Commission. The Press Council of India Act was established in 1965 and the first Press Council was constituted in 1966. The present Council, however, was set up under Act 37 of 1978. The Press Council is meant to safeguard the freedom of Press, maintain and improve the standard of newspapers and news agencies.