Literary Terms

Abstract Poem: Verse that makes little sense grammatically or syntactically but which relies on auditory patterns to create its meaning or poetic effects.

Acronym: A word formed from the initial letters in a phrase.

Aidos: The Greek term for the great shame felt by a hero after failure.

Allegory: is a literary composition seeking to convey through characters personifying vices, virtues etc a significance deeper than meets the eye. Allegories always lend themselves to more than one interpretations. (Example: John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress).

Alliteration: Two or more words following each other beginning with the same letter e.g., How High His Highness Heaves His Haughty Head.

Allusion: A casual reference in literature to a person, place, event, or another passage of literature, often without explicit identification. Allusions can originate in mythology, biblical references, historical events, legends, geography, or earlier literary works.

Alter Ego: A literary character or narrator who is a thinly disguised representation of the author, poet, or playwright creating a work.

Ambiance: Loosely the term is equivalent to atmosphere or mood, but more specifically, ambiance is the atmosphere or mood of a particular setting or location.

Amphitheater: An open-air theater, especially the unroofed public playhouses. Shakespeare’s Globe and the Rose are two examples.

Anagram (Greek: “writing back or anew”): When the letters or syllables in a name, word or phrase are shuffled together or jumbled to form a new word.

Anecdote: A short narrative account of an amusing, unusual, revealing, or interesting event.

Anti-climax: An abrupt and ludicrous descent from the sublime to the trivial.

Apostrophe: Not to be confused with the punctuation mark, apostrophe is the act of addressing some abstraction or personification that is not physically present.

Archaism: A word, expression, spelling, or phrase that is out of date in the common speech of an era, but still deliberately used by a writer, poet, or playwright for artistic purposes.

Autobiography: A non-fictional account of a person’s life

Ballad: A traditional poem telling a stirring tale generally passed on by word of mouth. In the composing of ballads, stanzas of four iambic lines are employed with the rhyme scheme a b c d.

Beast Fable: A short, simple narrative with speaking animals as characters designed to teach a moral or social truth.

Bibliography: a descriptive list of books or book containing such a list, or study, description or knowledge of books in regard to their authors, subjects, editions and history.

Bourgeoisie (French, “city-dwelling”): The French term bourgeoisie is a noun referring to the non-aristocratic middle-class, while the word bourgeois is the adjective-form. Calling something bourgeois implies that something is middle-class in its tendencies or values.

Burlesque: A work treating a serious subject in a light-hearted manner or ridiculing the work of some other writer.

Catharsis: Catharsis is the name given to the process of purging of the effects of pent-up emotions by bringing them to the surface of consciousness through drama.

Censorship: The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited.

Chronicle: A history or a record of events.

Chronology: The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative.

Cliché: A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature.

Cliffhanger: A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section “ends” at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens.

Climax: The high-point in a gradual build-up of ideas, each rising above its predecessor.

Colloquialism: A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing.

Comedy: An amuzing play with a happy ending e.g., Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest.

Connotation: The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

Copyright: The copyright of any literary or artistic work is vested in the author for the period of his life-time and 50 years following which it passes into the public domain and becomes freely available to any one who wants to make use of it. Under the Copyright Act, copyright subsists in every original literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work and the Copyright of the author is automatically protected.

Couplet: Two lines—the second line immediately following the first— of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit.

Demagogy: means oratory aimed at swaying popular opinion in a particular direction. It has been said that demagogues seek to attract attention by playing up real or imaginary popular grievances. Therefore, they are the “mob’s lacqueys”.

Dialect: The language of a particular district, class, or group of persons.

Dialogue: The lines spoken by a character or characters in a play, essay, story, or novel, especially a conversation between two characters, or a literary work that takes the form of such a discussion

Drama: A story told through action and speeches of characters with some dynamic action and with some conflict between the characters. The conflict may be outward or external, as it is in comedies or some inner conflict in the soul of a man as in tragedies.

Eclogue: A short poem or short section of a longer poem in the form of a dialogue

El Dorado: fictitious country or city abounding in gold—“the golden land of imagination of the Spanish conquerors of America.” It was believed in the days of early Spanish explorers that somewhere on the South American Continent there was a country abounding in gold and precious stones.

The term is still used for any place of rich promise.

Elegy: is a poem of lamentation for the dead or for some past glory.

Epic: is a long narrative poem telling of the splendid deeds of heroes and heroines, frequently concerned with war. (Examples: Mahabharata, Iliad).

Epigram: is a witty expression which is also brief and pithy.

Epilogue: A conclusion added to a literary work such as a novel, play, or long poem.

Epithet: A short, poetic nickname.

Errata: Errors or mistakes in a printed text.

Essay: A short prose composition presenting the author’s reflections on a subject of his choice.

Euphemism: Using a mild or gentle phrase instead of a blunt, embarrassing, or painful one.

Existentialism: A twentieth-century philosophy arguing that ethical human beings are in a sense cursed with absolute free will in a purposeless universe. Therefore, individuals must fashion their own sense of meaning in life instead of relying thoughtlessly on religious, political, and social conventions.

Fable: A brief story constructed to bring out a lesson or moral.

Flashback: A method of narration in which present action is temporarily interrupted so that the reader can witness past events—usually in the form of a character’s memories, dreams, narration, or even authorial commentary.

Folklore: Sayings, verbal compositions, stories, and social rituals passed along by word of mouth rather than written down in a text.

Genre: A type or category of literature or film marked by certain shared features or conventions.

Hymn: A religious song consisting of one or more repeating rhythmical stanzas.

Hyperbole: An expression deliberately employing exaggeration for the sake of effect e.g. “tons of money”.

Index: In common parlance, an index is a collection of topics, names, or chapter subjects arranged by alphabetical order in the back of a book.

Innuendo: An oblique expression hinting at something, but not openly stating it e.g., “The only thing he can do is to grow hair.”

Irony: saying something of which exactly the opposite is meant.

Jargon: Potentially confusing words and phrases used in an occupation, trade, or field of study.

Juxtaposition: The arrangement of two or more ideas, characters, actions, settings, phrases, or words side-by-side or in similar narrative moments for the purpose of comparison, contrast, rhetorical effect, suspense, or character development.

Leit-motif: In literature this term refers to an object, animal, phrase, or other thing loosely associated with a character, a setting, or event.

Lexicon: A fancy term scholars use when most people would simply say dictionary, i.e., a complete list of words and their definitions.

Lullaby: A song written for children, especially a calming one designed to help an infant go to sleep.

Lyric: A poem with song-like qualities. The original connotation of the word was a song meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a lyre.

Malapropism: An inaccuracy in vocabulary induced by accidental similarity in sound.

Manuscript: A text written by hand (or typed), as opposed to one printed with a printing press.

Melodrama: A play which embodies a deliberate appeal to the emotions, using sensation and violence for their own sake—usually an inferior kind of drama.

Metaphor: is used to emphasize similarity by speaking of one thing as another, rather than comparing the two as in a smile.

Metaphor, Mixed: Use of two or more inconsistent metaphors

simultaneously, e.g., “The cat is out of the bag, but I shall nip it in the bud.”

Mysticism: the habit or tendency of religious thought and feeling of those who seek direct communion with God or the Divine.

Narration, Narrative: Narration is the act of telling a sequence of events, often in chronological order. Alternatively, the term refers to any story, whether in prose or verse, involving events, characters, and what the characters say and do. A narrative is likewise the story or account itself.

Novel: is a lengthy story told in prose in narrative form, highlighting character and incidents. Some years ago, writers like James Joyce and Birginia Woolf wrote novels in which the mind’s response to events and its reflections were more important than the incidents. Such novels have been described as “stream of consciousness” novels.

Ode: A lyric poem, lofty in feeling and style and usually in the form of an address e.g., Keats’ “Ode to a Nightingale”.

Oxymoron (plural oxymora, also called paradox): Using contradiction in a manner that oddly makes sense on a deeper level.

Paradox: A statement which at first sight seems self-contradictory e.g., “The child is father of the man”.

Paraphrase: A brief restatement in one’s own words of all or part of a literary or critical work, as opposed to quotation, in which one reproduces all or part of a literary or critical work word-for-word, exactly.

Parody: is literary caricature which while purporting to imitate the theme or style of an author deliberately magnifies his faults so that they look ridiculous.

Pastoral: An artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence.

Pathos: A writer or speaker’s attempt to inspire an emotional reaction in an audience—usually a deep feeling of suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions.

Pen Name (Pseudonym): A fictitious name that a writer employs to conceal his or her identity. For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name “Mark Twain”.

Plagiarism: Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an original idea, phrase, or section of writing from someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the source via appropriate explanation or citation.

Poetry: A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language.

Poetic Justice: This is a literary expression used usually in estimating an author’s literary work, where the author portrays characters in a manner that ideal administration of reward and punishment are given in the end for the deserving characters. Marlow’s Edward II is an example of poetic justice.

Pornography: means writing, painting or photography describing or depicting sex in such a manner that it excites impressionable minds.

Prose: Any material that is not written in a regular meter like poetry.

Pulp Fiction: Mass market novels printed cheaply and intended for a general audience.

Pun: A play on two words similar in sound but different in meaning.

Relic: The physical remains of a saint or biblical figure, or an object closely associated with a saint, biblical figure, or a miracle.

Rhetoric: The art of using language; principles of eloquence and effective communication. Sometimes the word is also used to refer to a showy and laboured style of composition in prose.

Rubaiyat: An Arabic term meaning a quatrain, or four-line stanza.

Saga: Sagas are Scandinavian and Icelandic prose narratives about famous historical heroes, notable families, or the exploits of kings and warriors.

Sarcasm: The act of ostensibly saying one thing but meaning another.

Satire: Writing that holds up to ridicule the vices and follies of its age. (Example: G.B. Shaw’s Arms and the Man, a satire on war).

Simile: Comparison bringing out similarity between two things otherwise dis-similar.

Spoof: A comic piece of film or literature that ostensibly presents itself as a “genre” piece, but actually pokes fun at the clichés or conventions of the genre through imitative satire.

Stereotype: A character who is so ordinary or unoriginal that the character seems like an oversimplified representation of a type, gender, class, religious group, or occupation.

Stoic: a person who is indifferent to pleasure or pain, having austere impassivity and limited wants.

Tag: Catch-phrases or character traits that a fiction writer uses repeatedly with a character.

Tenor: In common usage, tenor refers to the course of thought, meaning or emotion in anything written or spoken.

Theme: A central idea or statement that unifies and controls an entire literary work.

Transferred Epithet: An adjective or adverb separated from the word which it properly qualifies to some other word in the sentence to lend a particular type of emphasis e.g., “Sausages cooked in a few reluctant drops of oil.”

Trilogy: A group of three literary works that together compose a larger narrative.

Utopia: The term is used for one who imagines or believes in a Utopia; one who advocates impracticable reforms or one who expects an impossible state of perfection in society. Utopia was the imaginary island of Sir Thomas Moore’s ideal state where perfect conditions of life and government existed; an imaginary state of ideal perfection.

Variorum: A variorum edition is any published version of an author’s work that contains notes and comments by a number of scholars and critics.

Vernacular: The everyday or common language of a geographic area or the native language of commoners in a country as opposed to a prestigious dead language maintained artificially in schools or in literary texts.

Wit: In modern vernacular, the word refers to elements in a literary work designed to make the audience laugh or feel amused.

Yellow Journalism: Any newspaper giving sensational news or features with lavish use of morally objectionable pictures or pseudo-scientific articles is said to be indulging in “yellow journalism”.

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Literature – Quotes & Phrases

QUOTABLE QUOTATIONS

Only free men negotiate. I shall never negotiate while I am still a prisoner: Nelson Mandela.

To be or not to be, that is the question: Hamlet.

England expects every man to do his duty: Admiral Nelson.

Dilli Chalo: Subhas Chander Bose.

Jan Gan Man Adhinayak Jai He: Rabindranath Tagore

Truth and Non-Violence are my God: Mahatma Gandhi

Let a hundred flowers bloom and let a thousand schools of thought contend: Mao Tse-tung

Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan: Lal Bahadur Shastri.

To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction: Isaac Newton.

A mad man has put an end to his life, for I can only call him mad who did it, and yet there has been enough poison spread in this country during the past years and months, and this poison has had an effect on people’s minds. We must face this poison, we must root out this poison….: Jawahar Lal Nehru said these words after assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. The mad man referred to was Nathu Ram Godse who assassinated Mahatma Gandhi. The poison mentioned means “religious fanaticism”. Mahatma Gandhi preached secularism which was not being tolerated by some section of society who, according to Jawahar Lal Nehru, have been organising themselves by preaching hatred. The “poison” referred to is that “hatred” or “intoleration” which had affected the people’s mind and the result was assassination of Mahatma Gandhi.

Eureka! Eureka!: Archmides

Swarajya is my birthright: Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them: William Shakespeare.

Aram Haram Hai: Jawaharlal Nehrua.

Just as I would not like to be a slave, so I would not like to be a master:

Abraham Lincoln.

Where wealth accumulates, men decay: Goldsmith.

Nevertheless it moves: Galileo.

Thank God, I have done my duty: Last words of Admiral Nelson.

A single step for a man a giant leap for mankind: Neil Armstrong.

For fools rush in where angels fear to tread: Pope—Essay on Criticism.

Necessity is the mother of invention: Unkonwn Latin proverb.

Whom the gods love die young: Greek apothegm quoted by Bryon in Don Juan.

The light that shone in this country was no ordinary light…………For that light represented living truth: Jawaharlal Nehru on death of Mahatama Gandhi.

Generations to come, it may be, will scarce believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth: Einstein’s tribute to Mahatama Gandhi.

Seditious fakir striding half-naked up the steps of the Viceroy’s palace there to negotiate and parley on equal terms with the representative of the King Emperor: Winston Churchill on Mahatama Gandhi.

And fools, who come to scoff, Remained to pray: Oliver Goldsmith.

Full many a gem of purest ray serene, The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear: Thomas Grey.

Death is the end of life; ah why / Should life all labour be: Alfred Tennyson.

Good government is no substitute for self-government: Morley.

Et tu, Brute!: Julius Caesar

Government of the people, by the people, for the people: Abraham Lincoln.

Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven: Milton.

A thing of beauty is a joy for ever: John Keats

East is East and West is West and never the twain shall meet: Kipling Frailty, thy name is woman: Shakespeare.

More things are wrought by prayer than this world dreams of: Tennyson.

Vini, vidi, vici (I came, I saw, I conquered): Julius Caesar—Letter to

Amanitus 47 BC

I have nothing to offer but blood, sweat and tears: Winston Churchill.

We shall this day light such a candle by God’s grace in England as I trust shall never be put out: Latimer to Ridley when they were put to death

by the Commands of Queen Mary

Remember, I: Charles I at the time of his execution.

Oh, no: Mrs Kennedy’s exclamation on finding that her husband had been struck with a bullet.

Hey Ram: Mahatma Gandhi’s last words before his death.

Eli, Eli, Lamma Sabcathani” (My God My God Why Hast Thou forsaken me?): These words were uttered by Jesus Christ when he was on the Cross. These were among the last seven words spoken by him.

Familiar Foreign Words and Phrases

ad hoc (L) arranged for this purpose; special.

ad infinitum (L) to infinity.

ad interim (L) in the meantime.

ad libitum: at pleasure.

ad modum (L) after the manner of.

ad referendum (L) for further consideration.

ad valorem (L) according to the value.

a fortiori (L) with the stronger reasons.

agent provocateur (F) one employed to lead others by pretended sympathy into acts of incurring penalties.

agenda: things to be done.

alma mater (L) a fostering mother; a University or College in which one is or has been instructed.

amicus curiae: friend of the court.

apropos (F) to the point.

au revoir (F) until we meet again.

au fait (F) well acquainted with.

belles lettres (F) literature that has aesthetic value.

bonafide (L) genuine; in good faith.

bon voyage (F) good journey to you.

carte blanche: full discretionary powers.

caveat emptor (L) let the buyer beware or look after his own interest.

ceteris paribus (L) other things being equal.

commune bonum (L) common good.

coup d’etat (L) violent change in the government.

de facto (L) in point of fact; actually.

de jure (L) from the law; by right.

de novo (L) anew; afresh.

de profundis (L) out of the depths (of sorrow and suffering).

divide et impera (L) divide and rule.

el Dorado: (Spanish) The imaginary land with plenty of gold.

elite: select; choice.

en bloc (F) the whole.

en masse (F) in a body.

en route (F) on the way.

en suite (F) in succession.

esperanto: simplified common language for Europe.

et cetera: and other things.

et tu, Brute (L) and thou also, Brutus (implying betrayal by a friend).

et seq: and the following.

ex officio: by virtue of one’s office.

exit (L) the way to go out.

ex gratia (L) as an act of grace.

ex parte (L) one-sided.

extempore (L) without premeditation.

fait accompli (F) a thing already done; established fact.

impasse (L) deadlock.

in camera (L) in secret.

in memoriam (L) to the memory of.

in toto (L) entirely.

ipso facto (L) in the fact itself.

laissez faire (F) let individuals be left alone; a policy of non-interference by the State.

lingua franca (L) a common language.

locus standi: right to interfere.

mala fide (L) with bad faith; treacherously.

modus operandi (L) manner of working.

modus vivendi (L) a way of living or agreeing.

mutatis mutandis (L) with necessary changes.

nem con (L) without opposition.

nom de plume (F) a title or assumed name.

null and void: something of no value or meaning; invalid; empty of significance.

obiter dictum (L) a passing remark.

par excellence (F) by way of eminence.

pari passu (L) with equal pace; together.

per diem (L) daily; by the day.

prima facie (L) on the first view.

pro bono publico (L) for the public good.

pro forma (L) for the sake of form.

pro rata (L) in proportion.

pros and cons: advantages and disadvantages.

pro tem: pro tempore (for the time being).

persona non-grata (L) an undesirable person.

raison d’etre (F) the reason for a thing’s existence.

repondez s’il vous plait (L) Reply, if you please (R.S.V.P.).

sine die (L) without a day appointed or without any definite date; indefinitely.

status quo (L) as it was in the beginning.

stet (L) let it stand.

sub judice (L) under consideration.

ultimo: last; ultimately.

ultra vires (L) beyond one’s powers.

via media (L) middle course.

vis-a-vis: opposite.

viva voce (L) by oral testimony.

Literature – Famous Characters

Adam: a character in “Paradise Lost” by Milton; also in Bible.

Alice: in “Alice in Wonderland” by Lewis Carroll.

Aladdin: Hero of the middle eastern folk tale which is part of “The Book of One Thousand and One Nights”. This folk tale was added by its French translator, Antoine Galland, who heard it from a Syrian-Arab storyteller.

Ariel: in “Tempest” by Shakespeare. A spirit controlled by Prospero, the exiled king.

Ancient Mariner: is the poem of the same name by Coleridge, who describes his supernatural experiences to the wedding guest.

Anna Karenina: heroine in the novel of the same name by Leo Tolstoy.

Antonio: in “Merchant of Venice” by Shakespeare. A generous merchant of whom Shylock demanded a pound of flesh.

Bassanio: The principal character in Shakespeare’s “Merchant of Venice”; a charming personality of noble birth and graceful manners; a true friend of Antonio.

Beatrice: heroine of Shakespeare’s “Much Ado About Nothing”. She plays a delightful role and is famous for her witty dialogues.

Beatrix: conquette heroine of “Henry Esmond” by Thackeray.

Mr Biswas: Hero of the novel A House for Mr Biswas, written by V. S. Naipaul. Mohun Biswas is an Indo-Trinidadian who continually strives for success and mostly fails, who marries into the Tulsi family only to find himself dominated by it, and who finally sets the goal of owning his own house.

Brutus: a historical character of Shakespeare’s tragic drama “Julius Caesar”, a valiant Roman who assassinated Julius Caesar. Julius Ceasar’s assassination by his trusted friend Brutus is considered the most famous classic betrayal.

Charlie Brown: He is the main protagonist in the comic strip Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz.

Christian: the hero of “Pilgrim’s Progress” by John Bunyan.

Clare: hero of “Tess” by Thomas Hardy.

Cleopatra: beauty queen of Egypt. Her character has been dramatised by Shakespeare in “Antony and Cleopatra” and by G.B. Shaw in “Caesar and Cleopatra”. A brilliant ambitious woman of captivating charm.

Cordelia: the faithful and the youngest daughter of Lear in Shakespeare’s “King Lear”.

Desdemona: faithful wife of the Moor (Othello) a victim of jealousy in Shakespeare’s drama “Othello”.

Don Quixote: The eccentric character in Cervantes’ novel of the same name.

Don Juan: The recklessly extravagant hero of a poem of the same name by Lord Byron.

Emma: Aged 20 at the start of the novel by the same name, written by Jane Austen, she is a young, beautiful, witty, and privileged woman in Regency England. She lives on the fictional estate of Hartfield in Surrey in the village of Highbury with her elderly widowed father, a hypochondriac who is excessively concerned for the health and safety of his loved ones.

Faust: The famous legendary figure who is said to have sold the soul to the Devil for a life of enjoyment characterised in “Faust” by Goethe and in “Doctor Faustus” by Marlowe.

Frankenstein: The monster character in the novel of the same name by Mrs Shelley.

Frederic Henry: A Farewell to Arms is a novel written by Ernest Hemingway, set during the Italian campaign of World War I. The book, published in 1929, is a first-person account of American Frederic Henry, serving as a Lieutenant in the ambulance corps of the Italian Army.

Gora: Hero of the novel of the same name by Dr Rabindranath Tagore.

Hamlet: the philosophical and indecisive character of Shakespeare’s tragic drama of the same name. His words “To be or not to be; that is the question” are famous for quotation purposes.

Hawkins: the hero of “Treasure Island” by Stevenson.

Harry Potter: Harry Potter is a series of seven fantasy novels written by the British author J. K. Rowling. The books chronicle the adventures of a wizard, Harry Potter, and his friends, Ronald Weasley and Hermione Granger, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The main story arc concerns Harry’s quest to overcome the Dark wizard Lord Voldemort, whose aims are to become immortal, conquer the wizarding world, subjugate non-magical people, and destroy all those who stand in his way, especially Harry Potter.

Hercule Poirot: He is a fictional Belgian detective, created by Agatha Christie. Along with Miss Marple, Poirot is one of Christie’s most famous and long-lived characters, appearing in 33 novels, one play, and more than 50 short stories published between 1920 and 1975 and set in the same era.

Hyde: the mysterious character in “Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde” by R.L.

Stevenson.

Iago: the villain in Shakespeare’s “Othello”.

Ivanhoe: hero in Scott’s novel of the same name.

Juliet: love-lorn heroine of “Romeo and Juliet” by Shakespeare.

Jacques: a philosophic character in “As You Like It” by Shakespeare.

James Bond: hero of novels by Jan Fleming.

Kim: the hero of the novel of the same name by Kipling. Kim is an orphan boy of an Irish soldier.

Lolita: Lolita is a novel by Vladimir Nabokov, written in English and published in 1955 in Paris and 1958 in New York. The novel is notable for its controversial subject: the protagonist and unreliable narrator, middleaged literature professor Humbert Humbert, is obsessed with the 12-year-old Dolores Haze, with whom he becomes sexually involved after he becomes her stepfather. His private nickname for Dolores is Lolita.

Macbeth: ambitious character in Shakespeare’s drama of the same name.

Micawber: the comic character in “David Copperfield” by Charles Dickens.

Oliver Twist: a poor orphan boy whose birth took place in a workhouse hero of Charles Dickens’ novel of the same name.

Peggoty: in “David Copperfield” by Charles Dickens. She is the lady who married Barkis in the story.

Peter Pan: is a character created by Scottish novelist and playwright J.M. Barrie. A mischievous boy who can fly and who never ages, Peter Pan spends his never-ending childhood adventuring on the small island of Neverland as the leader of his gang the Lost Boys, interacting with mermaids, native Americans, fairies, pirates, and occasionally ordinary children from the world outside of Neverland.

Pi: The protagonist of the novel Life of Pi, Piscine Molitor “Pi” Patel, is an Indian boy from Pondicherry who explores issues of spirituality and practicality from an early age. He survives 227 days after a shipwreck while stranded on a boat in the Pacific Ocean with a Bengal tiger named Richard Parker.

Pickwick: the central figure in “Pickwick Papers” by Charles Dickens.

Sherlock Holmes: the famous detective character in a series of detective stories—“Adventures of Sherlock Holmes”—by Sir A. Conan Doyle.

Shylock: a cruel and greedy Jew characterised by Shakespeare in “Merchant of Venice”.

Tintin: He is a fictional character in The Adventures of Tintin, the series of comic albums written and illustrated by Belgian artist Hergé. Tintin is the protagonist, the eponymous hero of the series. He is a reporter and adventurer who travels around the world with his dog Snowy.

Dr Watson: the friend of the character Sherlock Holmes created by A. Conan Doyle in a number of detective stories written by him.

Winnie the Pooh: also called Pooh Bear, is a fictional anthropomorphic bear created by A. A. Milne. The first collection of stories about the character was the book Winnie-the-Pooh (1926), and this was followed by The House at Pooh Corner (1928).

Dr Zhivago: hero of Boris Pasternak’s novel of the same name characterised as unsympathetic towards Bolshevism.

Literature – Books & Authors

  • Aag Ka Darya: Qurratul-Ain-Haider
  • A Bend in the River: V.S. Naipaul
  • A Brief History of Time: Stephen Hawking
  • A Bond with the Mountains: Ruskin Bond
  • A China Passage: John Kenneth Galbraith
  • A Dangerous Place: Daniel Patrick Moynihan
  • A Farewell to Arms: Ernest Hemingway
  • A Fine Balance: Rohinton Mistry
  • A House for Mr Biswas: Sir V.S. Naipaul
  • A Midsummer Night’s Dream: Shakespeare
  • A Million Mutinies Now: V.S. Naipaul
  • A Pair of Blue Eyes: Thomas Hardy
  • A Passage to England: Nirad C. Chowdhury
  • A Passage to India: E.M. Forster
  • A Room with a View: E.M. Forster
  • A Study of History: Arnold Toynbee
  • A Suitable Boy: Vikram Seth
  • A Tale of Two Cities: Charles Dickens
  • A Thousand Days: Arthur M. Schlesinger
  • A Thousand Suns: Dominique Lapierre
  • A View from Delhi: Chester Bowles
  • A Village by the Sea: Anita Desai
  • A Voice for Freedom: Nayantara Sehgal
  • A Week with Gandhi: Louis Fischer
  • Ace Against Odds: Sania Mirza
  • Adam’s Curse: Bryan Sykes
  • Adha Gaon: Rahi Masoom Reza
  • Adhe Adhure: Mohan Rakesh
  • Adventures of Angie March, The: Saul Bellow
  • Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: Arthur Conan Doyle
  • Adventures of Tom Saweyer: S.L. Glementes (Mark Twain)
  • Affluent Society: J.K. Galbraith
  • After the Dark Night: S.M. Ali
  • Age of Reason, The: Jean Paul Sartre
  • Agni Pariksha: Acharya Tulsi
  • Agni Veena: Kazi Nazrul Islam
  • Ain-i-Akbari: Abul Fazal
  • Alice in Wonderland: Lewis Carrol
  • Alien Nation: Peter Brimelow
  • All the President’s Men: Carl Bernsteir and Bob Woodward
  • All’s Well that Ends Well: William Shakespeare
  • All Quiet on the Western Front: Erich Maria Remarque
  • Ambassador’s Journal: J.K. Galbraith
  • Ambassador’s Report: Chester Bowles
  • American Pastoral: Philip Roth
  • Amrita: Raghuveer Chaudhary
  • Anand Math: Bankim Chandra
  • Ancient Mariner: Coleridge
  • And Quite flows the Don: Mikhail Sholokhov
  • An Equal Music: Vikram Seth
  • Anguish of Deprived: Lakshmi Dhar Mishra
  • An Idealist View of Life: Dr S. Radhakrishnan
  • An Unfinished dream: Dr Verghese Kurien
  • Animal Farm: George Orwell
  • Anna Karenina: Tolstoy
  • Antony and Cleopatra: Shakespeare
  • Ape and Essence: A. Huxley
  • Apple Cart: G.B. Shaw
  • Aranyer Din Ratri: Sunil Gangopadhyay
  • Area of Darkness: V.S. Naipal
  • Arms and the Man: G.B. Shaw
  • Around the World in Eighty Days: Jules Verne
  • Arthshastra: Kautilya
  • Ascent of the Everest: Sir John Hunt
  • Asian Drama: Gunnar Myrdal
  • As You Like it: Shakespeare
  • August 1914: Alexander Solzhenitsyn
  • Autobiography of an unknown Indian: Nirad C. Chowdhury
  • Babbit: Sinclair Lewis
  • Baburnama: Babur
  • Back to Methuselah: G.B. Shaw
  • Bandicoot Run: Menohar Malgonkar
  • Bang-e-Dara: Mohd Iqbal
  • Beautiful and the Damned, The: Siddhartha Deb
  • Beloved: Toni Morrison
  • Ben Hur: Lewis Wallace
  • Berry Patches: Yevgeny Yevtushenko
  • Between the Lines: Kuldip Nayar
  • Bhagwat Gita: Ved Vyas
  • Birth and Death of the Sun, The: George Gamow
  • Bisarjan: R.N. Tagore
  • Bitter Sweet: Noel Coward
  • Blind Beauty, The: Boris Pasternak
  • Blue Bird: Maurice Maeterlink
  • Bone People, The: Keri Hulme
  • Book of Nonsense: Edward Lear
  • Born Free: Joy Adamson
  • Brave New World: Aldous Huxley
  • Brief History of Seven Killings, A: Marlon James
  • Bring up the Bodies: Hilary Mantel
  • Brezhnev—The Masks of Power: John Dornberg
  • Broken Wing: Sarojini Naidu
  • Buddha Charitam: Ashvaghosha
  • Business—The Speed of Thought: Bill Gates
  • By God’s Decree: Kapil Dev
  • Caesar and Cleopatra: G.B. Shaw
  • Canterbury Tales: Chaucer
  • Catch-22: Joseph Heller
  • Chandalika: Rabindra Nath Tagore
  • Charandas Chor: Habib Tanvir
  • Charging: Liv Ullmaan
  • Chemmeen: T.S. Pillai
  • Chidambra: Sumitranandan Pant
  • Children of Gebelawi: Naguib Mahfouz
  • Chikaveera Rajendra: Masti Venkatesh Iyengar (Popularly known as “Srinivasa’’)
  • Chinese Betrayal, The: B.N. Mullick
  • Chitra: R.N. Tagore
  • Chittirappavai: P.V. Akilandam
  • City of Djinns: William Dalrymple
  • Commedy of Errors: Shakespeare
  • Communist Manifesto: Marx & Engels
  • Company of Women, The: Khushwant Singh
  • Comus: John Milton
  • Confessions of a Lover: Mulkh Raj Anand
  • Confession of a Thug: Taylor
  • Confidential Clerk: T.S. Eliot
  • Conquest of Self: Mahatma Gandhi
  • Continent of Circe: Nirad C. Chowdhury
  • Coolie: Mulkh Raj Anand
  • Court Dancer, The: Rabindra Nath Tagore
  • Cranford: Mrs Gaskell
  • Crime and Punishment: Dostoevsky
  • Crisis of India, The: Ronald Segal
  • Crescent Moon: Rabindra Nath Tagore
  • Critical Mass: William E. Burrows and Robert Windrem
  • Crossing the Threshold of Hope: Pope John Paul II
  • Darkness at Noon: Arthur Koestler
  • Dark Room, The: R.K. Narayan
  • Dashdwar Se Sopan Tak: Harivansh Rai Bachchan
  • Dash Kumar Charitam: Dandin
  • Das Kapital: Karl Marx
  • Daughter of the East: Benazir Bhutto
  • David Copperfield: Charles Dickens
  • Dayabhaga: Jimutavahana
  • Day in Shadow, The: Nayantara Sehgal
  • Days of His Grace: Eyvind Johnson
  • Death of a City: Amrita Pritam
  • Death of a President: William Manchester
  • Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: Edward Gibbon
  • Decline of the West, The: O. Spengier
  • Defence Without Drift: P.V.R. Rao
  • Degeneration of India, The: T.N. Seshan
  • Descent of Man: Charles Darwin
  • Deserted Village: Oliver Goldsmith
  • Devdas: Sarat Chander
  • Development as Freedom: Amartya Sen
  • Devichandraguptam: Vishakhadatta
  • Diary of a Young Girl: Anne Frank
  • Die Blendung (auto da fe): Elias Canetti
  • Difficult Daughters: Manju Kapoor
  • Discovery of India: Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Disgrace: J.M. Coetzee
  • Diplomacy: Henry Kissinger Dipshikha: Mahadevi Verma
  • Divine Comedy: Dante
  • Divine Life: Sivananda
  • Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde: Stevenson
  • Doctor’s Dilemma: G.B. Shaw
  • Don Quixote: Cervantes
  • Dr Zhivago: Boris Pasternak
  • Double Helix, The: J.D. Watson
  • Dracula: Bram Stoker
  • Dragonfire: Humphrey Hawksley
  • Dragon’s Teeth: U.B. Sinclair
  • Dreams, Roses and Fire: Eyvind Johnson
  • Dune: Frank Herbert
  • Durgesh Nandini: Bankim Chander Chatterjee
  • East of Aden: John Steinbeck
  • Ek Kahani Yeh Bhi: Manu Bhandari
  • Emma: Jane Austen
  • Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer, The: Siddhartha Mukherjee
  • End of an Era: C.S. Pandit
  • Ends and Means: A. Huxley
  • English August: Upamanya Chatterjee
  • Essays of Elia: Charles Lamb
  • Eternal Himalayas: Maj H.P.S. Ahluwalia
  • Everest Hotel, The: Allan Sealy
  • Everybody Loves a Good Drought: P. Sainath
  • Expanding Universe: Eddington
  • Experiments with Untruth: Michael Anderson
  • Eye of the Storm: Patrick White
  • Face to Face: Lasse and Lisa Berg
  • Facts are Facts: Khan Abdul Wali Khan
  • Fairie Queene: Edmund Spenser
  • Family Matter: Rohinton Mistry
  • Far from the Madding Crowd: Thomas Hardy
  • Farewell the Trumpets: James Morris
  • Fasana-i-Azad: Ratan Nath Sarshar
  • Father and Sons: Ivan Turgenev
  • Faust: Goethe
  • First Among Equals: Jeffrey Archer
  • First Circle: Alexander Solzhenitsyn
  • First Person: Vladmir Putin
  • Five Point Someone – What Not to do at IIT: Chetan Bhagat
  • Flight of Pigeons, The: Ruskin Bond
  • For whom the Bell Tolls: Ernest Hemingway
  • Forsyte Saga: John Galsworthy
  • Frankenstein: Marry Shelley
  • Freedom at Midnight: Dominique
  • Lapierre and Larry Collins
  • Freedom in Exile: Dalai Lama
  • Friends, Not Masters: Ayub Khan
  • From Here to Eternity: James Jones
  • Future Shock: Alan Toffler
  • Ganadevata: Tara Shankar Bandyopadhyaya
  • Gardener: Rabindranath Tagore
  • Gathering Storm: Winston Churchill
  • Gaoliang jiaju (Chineses) (Red Sorghum in English): Mo Yau
  • Geet Govind: Jaya Dev
  • Ghasiram Kotwal: Vijay Tendulkar
  • Ghost Road, The: Pat Barker
  • Gitanjali: Rabindranath Tagore
  • Glimpses of World History: Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Goa: Romesh Bhandari
  • Godan: Prem Chand
  • God of Small Things, The: Arundhati Roy
  • Going After Cacciato: Tim O’Brien
  • Golden Bough: James Frazer
  • Golden Gate, The: Vikram Seth
  • Golden Girl: P.T. Usha
  • Gone with the Wind: Margaret Mitchel
  • Good Earth: Pearl Buck
  • Gora: Rabindranath Tagore
  • Grammar of Politics: Harold Laski
  • Great Depression of 1990, The: Ravi Batra
  • Great Expectations: Charles Dickens
  • Great Gatsby: F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • Great Illusion: Normal Angell
  • Great India Novel, The: Shashi Tharoor
  • Ground beneath her feet, The: Salman Rushdie
  • Guide, The: R.K. Narayan
  • Gulag Archipelago: Alexander Solzhenitsyn
  • Gul-e-Naghma: Raghupati Sahai Firaq
  • Gulistan Bostan: Sheikh Saadi
  • Gulliver’s Travels: Jonathan Swift
  • Gypsy (Poem): Pushkin
  • Hajar Churshir Ma: Mahasveta Devi
  • Half a Life: Sir V.S. Naipaul
  • Hamlet: Shakespeare
  • Harsha Charita: Bana Bhatt
  • Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire: J.K. Rowling
  • Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix: J.K. Rowling
  • Harvesting our Souls: Arun Shourie
  • Heart of India, The: Mark Tully
  • Heat and Dust: Ruth P. Jhabwala
  • Henderson the Rain King: Saul Bellow
  • Henry Esmond: Thackeray
  • Hero of Our Time: Richard Hough
  • Higher than Hope—Rolihlahla We Love You: Prof Fatima Meer
  • Hindu Civilization: J.M. Barrie
  • Hindu View of Life: Radhakrishnan
  • Hinduism: Nirad C. Chowdhury
  • History of the Congress Party: Dr Sankar Ghose
  • Hitopdesh: Narayan
  • Hobbit, The: J.R.R. Tolkien
  • Huckleberry Finn: Mark Twain
  • Human Factor: Graham Greene
  • Human Stain, The: Philip Roth
  • Humboldt’s Gift: Saul Bellow
  • Hunchback of Notre Dame: Victor Hugo
  • Hungry Stones: Rabindranath Tagore
  • Iacocca: An Autobiography: Lee Icocca
  • I am not an Island: Khawja Ahmed Abbas
  • Idols: Sunil Gavaskar
  • Idylls of the King: Tennyson
  • I Follow the Mahatma: K.M. Munshi
  • If It Is Sweet: Mridula Koshy
  • Ignited Minds: A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
  • Illiad: Homer
  • Imagining India: Nandan Nilekani
  • Immortals of Meluha, The: Amish Tripathi
  • India Divided: Rajendra Prasad
  • India in Turmoil: Ved Marwah
  • India Unbound: Gurcharan Das
  • Indica: Megasthenese
  • India We Left: Humphrey Trevelyan
  • India Wins Freedom: Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
  • Indian Muslims: Prof Mohd Mujeeb
  • Indian Philosophy: Dr S. Radhakrishnan
  • Indian War of Independence: V.D. Savarkar
  • Indo-Pakistani Conflict, The: Russell Brines
  • Indulekha: O. Chandu Menon
  • Inheritance: Kiran Desai
  • In Memoriam: Tennyson
  • Inside Asia: John Gunther
  • Inside Europe: John Gunther
  • Insider, The: P.V. Narasimha Rao
  • Inside the CBI: Joginder Singh
  • Inside the Third Reich: Albert Speer
  • Interpreter of Maladies: Jhumpa Lahiri
  • Interpreters, The: Wole Soyinka
  • It’s Always Possible: Kiran Bedi
  • Invisible Man: H.G. Wells
  • Ivanhoe: Walter Scott
  • Jai Som Nath: K.M. Munshi
  • Jane Eyre: Charlotte Bronte
  • Japanese Wife, The: Kunal Basu
  • Jungle Book: Rudyard Kipling
  • Jurassic Park: Michael Crichton
  • Kadambari: Bana Bhatt
  • Kama Sutra: Vatsyayana
  • Kamayani: Jai Shankar Pd.
  • Kapala Kundala: Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
  • Karpurimanjari: Rajsekhara (in Sanskrit)
  • Kayar: R.S. Pillai
  • Kayakalp: Dr Lakshminanda Bora
  • Ken Attendant Godot: Samuel Beckett
  • Kennilworth: Sir Walter Scott
  • Khake-Dil: Jan Nissar Akhtar
  • Khasakinte Ithihaasam: O.V. Vijayan
  • Kidnapped: R.L. Stevenson
  • Killer Angels: Michael Shaara
  • Kim: Rudyard Kipling
  • Kingdom of God is Within You, The: Leo Tolstoy
  • King Lear: Shakespeare
  • Kipps: H.G. Wells
  • Kiratarjuniya: Bharavi
  • Kiss of God: Marshall Ball
  • Kitni Navon Main Kitni Baar: Ajneya
  • Krishnakali: Shivani
  • Kubla Khan: Coleridge
  • Labyrinth of Solitude, The: Octavio Paz
  • Lady Chatterley’s Lover: D.H. Lawrence
  • Lajja: Taslima Nasreen
  • L’Allegro: John Milton
  • Landscape od Dispossessed: Herta Mueller
  • Last Days of Pompeii: Bulwar Lytton
  • Last Phase, The: Pyare Lal
  • Lead Kindly Light: Vincent Shean
  • Le Contrat Social (The Social Contract): Rousseau
  • Les Miserable: Victor Hugo
  • Life Divine: Aurobindo Ghosh
  • Life of Johnson: James Boswell
  • Life of Pi: Yann Martel
  • Line of Beauty, The: Alan Hollinghurst
  • Living History: Hillary Clinton
  • Living Room: Graham Greene
  • Lolita: V. Nabakov
  • Lord of the Flies: William Golding
  • Love Story: Eric Segal
  • Love & Longing in Bombay: Vikram Seth
  • Lycidas: John Milton
  • Macbeth: William Shakespeare
  • Madame Bovary: Gustave Flaubert
  • Madhushala: Harivansh Rai Bachchan
  • Magic Mountain: Thomas Mann
  • Mahabharata: Vyas
  • Major Barbara: G.B. Shaw
  • Making of a Cricketer, The: Ajit Tendulkar
  • Malati Madhav: Bhavabhuti
  • Malavikagnimitra: Kalidas
  • Man, The Unknown: Carrol
  • Man and Superman: G.B. Shaw
  • Man Eaters of Kumaon: Jim Corbett
  • Man from Moscow, The: Greville Wynne
  • Manvini Bhavai: Pannalal Patel
  • Many Worlds: K.P.S. Menon
  • Marali Mannige Kota: Shivaram Karanth
  • Marriage and Morals: Bertrand Russell
  • Mati Matal: Gopinath Mohanty
  • Meghdoot: Kalidas
  • Mein Kampf: Hitler
  • Memoirs of the Second World War: Churchill
  • Men Who Kept Secrets: Thomas Powers
  • Merchant of Venice: Shakespeare
  • Midnight’s Children: Salman Rushdie
  • Modern Painters: John Ruskin
  • Moor’s Last Sigh, The: Salman Rushdie
  • Mother: Maxim Gorky
  • Mother India: Katherine Mayo
  • Motive, The: Tara Deshpande
  • Mountbatten: Philip Ziegler
  • Mousetrap, The: Agatha Christie
  • Mrichchakatikam: Sudraka (in Sanskrit)
  • Mrityunjaya: Shivaji Govindrao Sawant
  • Mrs Warren’s Profession: G.B. Shaw
  • Much Ado About Nothing: Shakespeare
  • Mudra Rakshasa: Vishakhadatta
  • Mukajjiya Kanasugalu: Shivarama Karanth
  • Murder in the Cathedral: T.S. Eliot
  • Muslim Dilemma in India, The: M.R.A. Baig
  • My Experiments with Truth: Mahatma Gandhi
  • My Frozen Turbulence in Kashmir: Jagmohan
  • My Life: Bill Clinton
  • My Life, Law and Other Things: M.C. Setalvad
  • My Music, My Life: Ravi Shankar
  • My Presidential Years: R. Venkataraman
  • My Reminiscences: Rabindra Nath Tagore
  • Mysterious Universe: James Jeans
  • Naari: Humayun Azad
  • Naganandan: King Sri Harsha
  • Naked Came the Stranger: Penelope Ashe
  • Naked Triangle, The: Balwant Gargi
  • Naku Thanthi: Dattatreya Ramchandra Bendre
  • Nana: Emile Zola
  • Narcopolis: Jeet Thayil
  • Narrow Road to the Deep North, The: Richard Flanagan
  • Netaji Dead or Alive: Samar Guha
  • Nice Guys Finish Second: B.K. Nehru
  • Nil Darpan: Dina Bandhu Mitra
  • Neelkanthi Broja: Indira Goswami
  • Nine Days Wonder: John Masefield
  • Nineteen Dead Souls: Nikolai Gogol
  • Nineteen Eighty Four: George Orwell
  • Nisheeth: Umashankar Joshi
  • Niti-Sataka: Bhartrihari
  • O’ Jerusalem: Larry Collins & Dominique Lapierre
  • Oath of the Vayuputras, The: Amish Tripathi
  • Odakkuzhal: G. Sankar Kurup
  • Odyssey: Homer
  • Of Human Bondage: Somerset Maugham
  • Of Love and Other Demons: Gabriel Garcia Marquez
  • Oh, Calcutta: Kenneth Tynan
  • Old Curiosity Shop, The: Charles Dickens
  • Old Devils, The: Kingsley Amiss
  • Old Man and The Sea, The: Ernest Hemingway
  • Old Woman: Mahasweta Devi
  • Oliver Twist: Charles Dickens
  • On Contradiction: Mao Tse-Tung
  • One Flew Over Cuckoo’s Nest: Ken Kasey
  • One Hundred Years of Solitude: Gabrial Garcia Marquez
  • One World: Wendell Wilkie
  • One Life: Christian Bernard
  • Only One Year: Svetlana
  • Origin of Species: Charles Darwin
  • Orion, The: Richard Henry Horne
  • Oru Desatinte Katha: S.K. Pottekkatt
  • Oscar and Lucinda: Peter Carey
  • Othello: Shakespeare
  • Other Side of Midnight, The: Sidney Sheldon
  • Our India: Minoo Masani
  • Our Presidents: M.A. Naidu
  • Out of Dust: F.D. Karaka
  • Paddy Clark Ha, Ha, Ha: Rodney Doyle
  • Padmavat: Jyasi, Malik Mohammed
  • Pakistan Cut to Size: D.R. Mankekar
  • Pakistan: The Gathering Storm: Benazir Bhutto
  • Palace of Illusions, The: Chitra Banerjee Divakurni
  • Panchagram: Tarashankar Bandyopadhyaya
  • Panchali Sapatham: Subramania Bharati
  • Panchtantra: Vishnu Sharma
  • Paradise Lost: John Milton
  • Paraja: Gopinath Molianty
  • Parimal: Suryakant Tripathy ’Nirala’
  • Pathar Panchali: Bibhuti Bhushan Bandyopadhyaya
  • Persuasion: Jane Austen
  • Peter Pan: J.M. Barrie
  • Pichale-Paher: Jan Nissar Akhtar
  • Pickwick Papers: Charles Dickens
  • Pilgrim’s Progress: John Bunyan
  • Piano Teacher, The: Elfriede Jelinek
  • Plague: Albert Camus
  • Polyster Prince: Hanish McDonald
  • Possession: A.S. Byatt
  • Post Office, The (Dak Ghar): Rabindranath Tagore
  • Prathama Pratishruti: Ashapurna Devi
  • Prem Pachisi: Prem Chand
  • Price of Partition: Rafiq Zakaria
  • Pride and Prejudice: Jane Austen
  • Prince, The: Machiavelli
  • Prison and Choclate Cake: Nayantara Sehgal
  • Prison Diary: Jayaprakash Narayan
  • Prithvi Raj Raso: Chand Bardai
  • Principia: Isaac Newton
  • Pygmalion: G.B. Shaw
  • Raag Darbari: Shrilal Shukla
  • Raghuvamsa: Kalidas
  • Rainbow, The: D.H. Lawrence
  • Rains Came: Louis Bromfield
  • Rajtarangini: Kalhana
  • Ramayana: Valmiki (in Sanskrit)
  • Ramayana Darshanam: K.V. Puttappa
  • Ramayana – A Liguistic Study: Satya Vrat Sharma
  • Ram Charit Manas: Tulsidas
  • Rang Mala: Ravi Shankar
  • Ranti-Tangazhi (Two Measures): T.S. Pillai
  • Rape of Bangladesh: Anthony Mascrenhas
  • Rasidi Ticket: Amrita Pritam
  • Ratnavali: King Sri Harsha
  • Razor’s Edge: Somerset Maugham
  • Rebbecca: Daphne du Maurier
  • Red Star over China: Edger Snow
  • Red Tap and White Cap: P.V.R. Rao
  • Reminiscences of Nehru Age: M.O. Mathai
  • Reprieve: Jeam Paul Sartre
  • Republic: Plato
  • Ritusamhara: Kalidas
  • Robinson Crusoe: Daniel Defoe
  • Room at the Top: John Braine
  • Romeo and Juliet: William Shakespeare
  • Roots: Alex Haley
  • Rubaiyat-i-Omar Khayyam: Edward Fitzgerald
  • Rude Food: Vir Sanghvi
  • Saket: Maithili Saran Gupta
  • Sakharam Binder: Vijay Tendulkar
  • Satanic Verses: Salman Rushdie
  • Satantango: László Krasznahorkai
  • Satyarath Parakash: Swami Dayanand
  • Sea of Poppies: Amitav Ghosh
  • Second-Hand Time: Svetlana Alexievich
  • Secret of Nagas, The: Amish Tripathi
  • Seven Lamps of Architecture: John Ruskin
  • Seven Summers: Mulkh Raj Anand
  • Scarlet Pimpernel: Baroness Orczy
  • Scenes from a Writer’s Life: Ruskin Bond
  • Scholar Extraordinary: Nirad C. Chowdhury
  • Samskara: U.R. Ananthamurthy,
  • Scope of Happiness, The: Vijayalakshmi Pandit
  • Sense of an Ending, The: Juhan Barnes
  • Shadow from Ladakh: Bhabani Bhattacharya
  • Shadow Lines: Amitav Ghosh
  • Shakuntala: Kalidas
  • Shah Nama: Firdausi
  • Shame: Salman Rushdie
  • Shantaram: David Gregory Roberts
  • Shape of Things to Come: H.G. Wells
  • She Stoops to Conquer: Goldsmith
  • Siddharta: Hermann Hess
  • Sohrab and Rustam: Mathew Arnold
  • Solo: Rena Dasgupta.
  • Songs of India, The: Sarojini Naidu
  • Sons and Lovers: D.H. Lawrence
  • Speed Post: Shobha De
  • Speedpost: Shobha De
  • Spirit of the Age: William Hazlitt
  • Spycatcher: Peter Wright
  • St John: G.B. Shaw
  • Story of My Life, The: Morarji Desai
  • Such a Long Journey: Rohinton Mistry.
  • Sunny Days: Sunil Gavaskar
  • Sursagar: Surdas
  • Sursatia: Bimal Mitra
  • Surviving Doomsday: Bruce Sibley
  • Swami and Friends: R.K. Narayan
  • Swapnavasavdatta: Bhasa
  • Tales of Open Road: Ruskin Bond
  • Tales from Shakespeare: Charles Lamb
  • Talisman: Walter-Scott
  • Tamas: Bhisham Sahni
  • Tarzan of the Apes: Edger Rice Burroughs
  • Tehri Lakeer: Ismat Chugtai
  • Tempest, The: William Shakespeare
  • Tes of the D’Urbervilles: Thomas Hardy
  • Testament of Beauty: Robert Bridges
  • Thank you Jeeves: P.G. Wodehouse
  • The Sea, The Sea: Iris Murdoch
  • Thirst for Freedom, The: C.S. Challapa
  • Thirukkural: Thiruvalluvar
  • Three Musketeers: Alexander Dumas
  • Time Machine: H.G. Wells
  • Tin Drum, The: Gunter Grass
  • To Light a Candle: Welthy Fisher
  • Tom Jones: Henry Fielding
  • Tom Sawyer: Mark Twain
  • Towards Total Revolution: Jayaprakash Narayan
  • Train to Pakistan: Khushwant Singh
  • Travels with a Donkey: R.L. Stevenson
  • Treasure Island: R.L. Stevenson
  • Trial of Jesus: John Masefield
  • Troubles: J.G. Farell
  • Triumph, The: J.K. Galbraith
  • Tropic of Cancer: Henry Miller
  • Trumpet Major, The: Thomas Hardy
  • Tughlaq: Girish Karnad
  • Tunnel of Time, The: R.K. Laxman
  • Twelfth Night: Shakespeare
  • Two Leaves and a Bud: Mulkh Raj Anand
  • Two Lives: Vikram Seth
  • Tyagpatra: Jainendra
  • Ulysses: James Joyce
  • Umbrella Man, The: Siddhartha Gigoo
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Mrs Harriet Stowe
  • Unhappy India: Lajpat Rai
  • Untouchable: Mulk Raj Anand
  • Universe Around Us: James Jeans
  • Unto This Last: John Ruskin
  • Untold Story: B.M. Kaul
  • Upturned Soil, The: Mikhail Sholokhov
  • Urvashi: Ramdhari Singh Dinkar
  • Uttara-Rama Charita: Thomas Moore
  • Utopia: Sir Thomas More
  • Valley of Dolls: Jacqueline Susann
  • Vande Mataram: Bankim Chandra
  • Venisamhar: Narayana Bhatt
  • Vanty Fair: Charles Dickens
  • Viceroy’s Journal: Penderel Moon
  • Video Nights in Kathmandu: Pico Iyer
  • Vikar of Wakefield: Oliver Goldsmith
  • Vinaypatrika: Tulsidas
  • Viswambhara: Dr C.N. Reddy
  • Voyages of Dr Doolitlle: Hugh Lofting
  • Waiting for Godot: Thomas Becket
  • Wake Up India: Annie Besant
  • War and Peace: Tolstoy
  • War of Indian Independence: Vir Savarkar
  • Waste Land: T.S. Eliot
  • Way of All Flesh: Samuel Butler
  • We the Nation, The Lost Decades: N.A. Palkhivala
  • Wealth of Nations: Adam Smith
  • White Tiger, The: Arvind Adiga
  • Wilhelm Meister: Goethe
  • Wings of Fire, The: Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
  • Witness to an Era: Frank Moraes
  • Wolf Hall: Hilary Mantel
  • Wuthering Heights: Emily Bronte
  • Yama: Mahadevi Verma
  • Yashodora: Maithalisharan Gupta
  • Yayati: Vishnu Sakharam Khandekar
  • Year of the Vulture: Amita Malik
  • Yogi and the Bear: S. Nihal Singh
  • Zhivago, Dr: Boris Pasternak
  • Zindaginama: Krishna Sobti
  • Zinky Boys: Svetlana Alexievich

Well-known Indian Authors and their Languages

Assamese: Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya; Hem Chander Barua; Hem Chandra Goswami; Madhavkandali, Dhrubajyoti Bora, Purabi Barmundi, Atulananda Goswami, Yeshe Dorji Thongchi, Keshav Mahunta, Ajit Barua, Sneha Devi, Indira Goswami.

Bengali: Ashapurna Devi, Bankim Chandra Chatterji, Bibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyaya; Kazi Nazrul Islam, Tarashankar Bandyopadhyaya, Sarat Chandra Chatterji, Rabindranath Tagore, Premendra Mitra, R.C. Dutt, Bishnu Dey, Sunil Gangopadhyay, Humayun Ahmed, Atin Bandhopadhyaya, Mahashveta Devi, Sankha Ghoah, Maiteyee Devi.

Gujarati: Umashankar Joshi, Mirabai, Nursing Mehta, K.M. Munshi, Goverdhanram, Narmada Sagar, Rajendra Shah, Suresh Dalal, Dhirubhai Patel, Manubhai Pancholi ‘Darshak’, Mahadev Desai, Raghuveer Chaudhary.

Hindi: Mahadevi Verma, H.S. Vatsyayan, Sumitranandan Pant, Tulsidas, Surdas, Jai Shankar Prasad, Malik Mohammed Jaysi, Maithilisharan Gupat, Harish Chandra, Girija Kumar Mathur, Dharmvir Bharati, Kailash Vajpayi, Harivansh Rai Bachchan, Bhisham Sahni, Krishna Sobti, Kamleshwar, Mannu Bhandari, Maitreyi Pushp, Yashpal, Mohan Rakesh, Raghuvir Sahay, Amrit Lal Nagar.

Kannada: K.V. Puttappa, Pampan, Ranna, Purandara Das, B.M. Shrikanta, Ramachandra Bendre, Dr Anantha Murthy, Vaidehi, Veerabhadrappa, Geeta Nagbhushan, Girish R. Karnad, T.R. Subba Rao.

Malayalam: S.K. Pottekkatt, G. Shankara Kurup, Siva Sankara Pillai, C.V. Raman Pillai, O. Chandu Menon, Thakashi, Kumaran Asan, Narayana Menon, Vallathol, Muhammad Basheer, Paul Zacharia, Balamaniamma, A. Sethumadhavan, Sara joseph, O.V. Vijayan.

Marathi: Tikaram Mahay, Hari Narayan Apte, Tukaram, V.S. Khandekar, Shivaji Govindrao Sawant, Vijay Tendulkar, Vasant Abaji Dahake, G.M. Pawar, Aasha Bage, Ranganath Pathore, Gangadhar Gadgil, G.N. Dandekar.

Odiya: Radha Nath Roy, Gopalabandhudas, Gopinath Mohanty, Manoj Das, Phany Mohanty, Deepak Mishra, Ramchandra Behara, Prafulla K. Mohunty, Pratibha Ray, Kunjbehari Das.

Punjabi: Bhai Vir Singh, Dhani Ram Chatrik, Amrita Pritam, Nanak Singh, Waras Shah, Balwant Gargi, Shiv Batalvi, Surjit Patar, Satinder S. Noor, Mohan Vhandari, Manjit Tiwana, Ajit Caur, Dalip Kaur Tiwana, Kartar S. Duggal, V.N. Tiwari, Gurbachan S. Bhullar.

Sanskrit: Kalidas, Bana Bhatt, Bhartrihari, Kalhana, Bhava Bhuti, Mitra Shastri.

Tamil: P.V. Akilandam; Subramania Bharati; Ramalingam, Indira Parthasarthy, Neela Padmanabhan, C.S. Chellapa, Thirupurasundari ‘Lakshmi’, T. Jankiraman, R.P. Sethu Pillai, C. Rajagopalachari, A. Madhavan.

Telugu: Lakshmi Narsimhan, Manippalle Raju, Triputi, Viswanadha Satyanarayana, Yarlagadda Laxmi Prasad, Chekuri Ramarao, N. Gopi, Abburi Chayadevi, Ketu Viswanatha Reddy.

Urdu: Mirza Ghalib, Iqbal, Altaf Hussain, Hali, Josh Malihabadi, Raghupati Sahai “Firaq Gorakhpuri”, Ghulam Rabbani, Ale Ahmed Surror, Maheshwar Dayal, Mohammad Atteq Siddiqui, Qurratul-Ain-Haider, Shamsur Rahman Faruqi, Wahab Ashrafi, Gulzar, Nida Fazli, Shahryar, Jan Nissar Akhtar, Kaifi Azmi, Rajinder S. Bedi, Syed Musud Hasan Rizvi.